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Typhus vaccination, Typhoid Fever vaccine

Vaccine

In Germany there are several vaccines. They are either oral live vaccines (capsules to be swallowed) or vaccines to be injected.

Typherix®
Composition: 1 dose (0.5 ml) contains: Vi-Polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi. 25 µg.
Further additives: sodium dihydrogen phosphate, Sodium monohydrogen phosphate, Sodiumchlorid, Phenol 1.1 mg, water for the purpose of injection

TYPHiM Vi®
Composition: 1 dose (0.5 ml) contains: purified Vi-capsule polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi (strain Ty 2) 25 µg.
Further additives: Phenol, buffered isotonic saline solution

Typhoral L® capsules
Composition: 1 capsule contains: Salmonella typhi, strain Ty 21 a Berna at least. 1 billion apathogenic live germs and at least 5 billion inactivated germs.

Further additives: salt, vitamins, saccharine.

 

in the US there are several vaccines available:

Vivotif® (oral)

Composition:Contents of one enteric-coated capsule of Vivotif (Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a)
Viable S. typhi Ty21a 2–6.8 x 109 colony-forming units, Non-viable S. typhi Ty21a 5–50x109 bacterial cells, Sucrose 26-130 mg, Ascorbic acid 1–5 mg, Amino acid mixture 1.4–7 mg, Lactose 100–180 mg, Magnesium stearate 3.6–4.4 mg

 

Typhoid Vi Polysaccharide Vaccine Typhim Vi® (Shot)

 
Composition: 1 dose (0.5 ml) contains: purified Vi-capsule polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi (strain Ty 2) 25 µg.
Further additives: Phenol, buffered isotonic saline solution

Immunity

Oral vaccinations have only a very minimal protective effect of 33-67%, when vaccines are injected they are 55-74%(Plotkin S.A., Bouveret-Le Cam N.: A new typhoid vaccine composed of the Vi capsular polysaccharide. Arch Intern Med 1995, 155(21):2293-2299)


Vaccine complications and vaccine damages

Inactivated Typhoid Vaccine (Shot) should not be given to children younger than 2 years of age and Live Typhoid Vaccine (Oral) should not be given to children younger than 6 years of age.

Anyone who has had a severe reaction to a previous dose of this vaccine should not get another dose.

 

Typherix® adverse effects: local reactions (reddening, swelling, pain). General reaction (e.g. headache, elevated temperature, malaise)

Allergic reactions: rare.

TYPHiM Vi® Side effects: Local reactions (reddening, swelling, pain). General reactions (e.g. headaches, elevated temperature, malaise). Allergic reactions (rare). Myalgia, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, joint pain. For booster shots increased occurrence of local side effects possible.

DATA FROM WORLDWIDE POST-MARKETING EXPERIENCE
The following adverse events have been reported during post-approval use of Typhim Vi vaccine. These events have been very
rarely reported.
Side effects are organized by order of descreasing frequency.

Gastro intestinal disorders Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
General disorders and administration site condition

Local Reactions: injection site pain, injection site inflammation, injection site induration, injection site erythema, and
lymphadenopathy.

Fever, asthenia, malaise, flu-like episode, abdominal pain

Immune system disorders Allergic-type reactions such as pruritus, rash, urticaria, difficulty breathing, hypotension.
Serum sickness.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Myalgia, arthralgia, cervical pain
Nervous system disorders Headache, loss of consciousness, tremor


Additional Adverse Events:
Post-marketing reports of glomerulonephritis, neutropenia, bilateral retinitis, and polyarthritis have been reported in patients
who had also received other vaccines; however a causal relationship has not been established.

Typhoral L® Side effects: Local reactions (reddening, swelling, pain). General reactions (e.g. headache, elevated temperature, malaise). Allergic reactions (rare). Very rare intestinal problems and general reactions such as elevated temperature, chills, headaches and joint pain. Very rare exanthema.

report-vaccine-reaction-140
Reported cases:
vaccindamage database

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